A

    ABS

    Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, a thermoplastic used as a 3D printer material. Often ABS is used as a short form, actually referring to filament made of ABS: 'Do you use ABS in your Mendel?' Be careful that sometimes filament sold as ABS is in fact mixed with other thermoplastic, thus altering its characteristics. The melting temperature is 220-230°C, but can be different if the manufacturer has mixed this with other thermoplastics. ABS is soluble in acetone and can be use to smooth the surface of the print-out.

B

    Bed

    The build plate of the 3D printer on which parts are actually made. Typical materials are aluminium or glass.

    Belt

    Toothed gear belt, usually fiber-reinforced to prevent stretching. Used to transfer movement from the motors to other parts of a machine along with pulleys.

    Biopolymer

    Biopolymer has different meanings and is classified by Enders. Biopolymer can be made out of renewable, natural sources or petrol based, Biopolymer can be the polymers out of natural monomers (ex. PLA, bioFila) or Biopolymer can standard polymers but out of a natural source (ex. Polyamid. out or natural oils).

    BOM

    Bill of materials. A list of parts. There are BOMs for the whole Mendel and for individual components.

    Also said to be "Book of Materials" in some contexts.

C

    CAD/CAM

    Computer Aided Design / Computer Aided Manufacturing. The use of 3D modelling software to aid the design testing and manufacture of parts.

    CAE

    Computer Aided Engineering.

    CNC

    Computer Numerical Control.

    Carriage

    The moving middle assembly on the x-axis of a RepRap which holds the extruder. Often referred to as: x-carriage.

    Catalyst

    A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction. A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs

    Copolymers

    Copolymers are additives that are included in the polymer blends with the intention to add certain properties to the main polymer.

    All polymers have principal properties that are desired, but bring others that are not. A good example is Styrene, which is clear, has great accuracy when molded into a shape but is very brittle and ages poorly in sunlight. In certain commercial varnishes Butadyene can be added to give it some flexibility and UV protectors to make it more durable. The difference between copolymers and fillers is that the first ones participate in the chemical chain reaction and are bonded to the main monomer.

    Curing

    The process by which the model hardens to its final form.

D

    DDM

    Direct Digital Manufacturing

    DMD

    Direct Metal Deposition

    DMLS

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering

E

    Endstop

    RepRap's Cartesian axes all need a datum (also known as home position or end-stop) to reference their movements. At the start of each build each axis needs to back up until the datum point is reached. The switches also help protect the machine from moving past its intended range and damaging itself.

    EVA

    Ethylene Vinyl Acetate. Several early RepRap research experiments used off-the-shelf EVA glue sticks in hot-glue guns. Those glue sticks are mostly EVA which melts around 85°C.

    Extrude

    The act of placing the build material on the build platform, normally by heating thermoplastic to a liquid state and pushing it through a small nozzle commonly referred to as a "hot end".

    Extruder

    A group of parts which handles feeding and extruding of the build material. Consists of two assemblies: a cold end to pull and feed the thermoplastic from the spool, and a hot end that melts and extrudes the thermoplastic.

    EBM

    התכה בעזרת אלומת אלקטרונים (Electron Beam Melting): הדפסת מודלים ממתכת כמו ב-SLM אולם באמצעות אלומת אלקטרונים במקום לייזר.

F

    Filler

    Fillers are solid materials that are added to polymers (or cements) and that do not interact chemically with it. They remain inert but do add special desired mechanical features to the compound. These can range from density alteration (make the compound heavier or lighter) additional strength (fibers...), resistance to abrasion and improved thermal properties (sands...) or simply thinning the compound to reduce material cost (talc).

    FDM

    Fused Deposition Modeling. The term fused deposition modeling and its abbreviation to FDM are trademarked by Stratasys Inc. The equivalent term fused filament fabrication (FFF), was coined by the members of the RepRap project to provide a phrase that would be legally unconstrained in its use.

    התכה ומיזוג לצורך מידול (Fused Deposition Modelling): זאת שיטת ההדפסה הנפוצה ביותר. חברת "Stratasys" הציגה אותה לעולם בשנת 1991 וב-2005 הוקם על בסיס אותו הרעיון פרויקט ה-Reprap לבניית מדפסת ביתית בקוד פתוח. בשיטת ה-FDM חוט פלסטיק מועבר דרך ראש הזרקה מחומם שמוציא חוט דקיק ומצייר איתו שכבה אחר שכבה. ישנן מדפסות העובדות על מערכת צירים קרטזית כלומר בצירים X ו-Y (כמו אקדח דבק חם) כאשר גובה הבסיס (ציר ה-Z) משתנה לאחר כל ציור של שכבה. מדפסות תלת מימד מסוג דלתא המבוססות על מבנה של רובוט דלתא (אחת החברות המובילות בייצור רובוט מסוג זה היא "SeeMeCNC") מדפיסות בשיטה בה משטח ההדפסה אינו נע, אלא ראש ההדפסה יכול לנוע בכל כיוון תוך כדי שמירת הזרקת הפלסטיק המומס לכיוון המשטח. יתרונות שיטת ההדפסה (FDM) היא בפשטות ובמגוון סוגי החומרים שניתן להדפיס איתם, בהחלפה הקלה של חומרי הגלם ובעלותם הנמוכה.

    FFF

    Fused Filament Fabrication. Where a filament of one material (plastic, wax, metal, etc.) is deposited on top of or alongside the same (or similar) material making a joint (by heat or adhesion).

    Filament

    Two uses:

    Plastic material made into (often 3 mm or 1.75mm) string to be used as raw material in 3D printers.
    Extruded plastic (often < 1 mm).

    Frog

    Also known as the squashed frog, this is a part that the printing plate connects to. The frog connects directly to the linear bearings on the Y axis. The name comes from the original Sells Mendel part that looked like a "squashed frog".

G

    G-code

    The information sent over the wire from a PC to most computer numerical control (CNC) machines -- including most RepRaps -- is in G-code. While in principle a human could directly type G-code commands to a RepRap, most people prefer to use one of the many CAM Toolchains that reads a STL file and sends lines of G-code over the wire to the machine. The electronics in the machine then translate these commands into motor controller operations, among other things.

H

    Hardening

    The process by which the model hardens to its final form.

    Heated Bed

    A build surface warmed in order to keep the base of an extruded part from cooling (and shrinking) too quickly. Such shrinking leads to warping internal stresses in RP parts. The most common result is corners of parts lifting off the build surface. Heated beds usually yield higher quality finishing on the builds. They commonly consist of glass, ceramics, or metal.

    Heated Build Chamber

    A heated build chamber is typically sealed and heated to prevent warping during the printing process.

    HIPS

    High Impact Polystyrene, a thermoplastic used as a 3D printing material. Similar to ABS in material properties and can be dissolved using limonene. Therefore the has to stay 24h in a limonene bath. HIPS is also BPA-free and less inflexible than either ABS or PLA. Melting point is 235°C and the heating plate should have 105-120°C.

    Hot End

    The heated nozzle portion of the extruder mechanism, which gets hot enough to melt plastic (or potentially other materials). Hot end parts use materials that withstand temperatures up to ~240 °C (and higher for newer all-metal designs). The diameter of available nozzle orifices ranges from about 0.15mm to 1.0mm, with sizes in the range 0.3mm-0.5mm currently being the most common.

I

    J

      K

        Kapton Tape

        Heat-resistant polyimide adhesive tape. Used to secure the heating element to the extruder barrel. It can also be used on the surface of a heated bed. It is compatible with a temperature range of about 269 C.

      L

        M

          Monomer

          A molecule that, under the correct conditions, can link together with others to form larger molecules called polymers. A monomer must be capable of forming two or more bonds to other monomers.

        N

          NEMA

          Usually meant to refer to a specific size of stepper motor.

          NEMA 14 - A smaller stepper motor used in Huxley and others.
          NEMA 17 - A larger, more powerful stepper motor used in Mendel and many others.
          NEMA 23 - An even larger, very powerful stepper motor.

          Nichrome

          An alloy of nickel and chromium. Nichrome wire is used as a heating element in many extruder barrels and some heated bed designs. Simpler and less messy enamel resistors are often used for the same purpose.

          Nylon

          Nylon or polyamide is an engineering grade thermal plastic used in extruder based and laser sintering systems. There are different versions providing a range mechanical properties in either filament or powder form. These include nylon-6,6; nylon-6; nylon-6,9; nylon-6,10; nylon-6,12; nylon-11; nylon-12 and nylon-4,6.

        O

          OBJ

          Short for Object File, is an alternative to the STL file format.

          Oligomer

          Oligomers are big molecules composed of monomer bricks, joined together in more or less branched fashion, so as to provide polymerization seeds for the final polymer. A free analogy would be that monomers are to oligomers what a water molecule is to a snowflake. In commercial resins, oligomers are mixed with their monomer components so as to achieve a polymer of desired properties, due to their ability to spatially organize the polymerization process.

        P

          Parametric

          (Adjective) Adjustable in all dimensions. A parametric model is one that can be resized and or distorted to suit the user's needs. In CAD software, If a widget has a 1 cm hole in it, you can select that hole and make it a 5 mm hole with a few clicks, as opposed to a triangular mesh (see #STL), which is more difficult to adjust.

          The native format of several [Useful Software Packages|useful software packages] can store parametric models.

          PEEK

          Polyether Ether Ketone. A high temperature thermoplastic used as a thermal barrier in the extruder.

          PLA

          Polylactic Acid. A biodegradable thermoplastic polymer used as a 3D printer material. In many cases compounded with other polymers for become usable. Melding point 150-160°C. The material properties can vary, depending form the manufacture. It has been described as having a slightly sweet scent when melted or printing.

          Photopolymer

          Photopolymers are used in light reaction systems either with ultraviolet or visible energy. The liquid material is cross-linked or hardened when exposed to light. Photopolymers are used in both Digital Light Processing(DLP) and Stereolithography(SLA) systems.

          PVA

          Polyvinyl Alcohol is water soluble filament used as 3D printing material for support. It is generally used as one of the filaments in dual extrusion 3D printers. PVA is water soluble whereas ABS and PLA are non water soluble. So, the object printed using both PVA and PLA/ABS can be dipped in water for the support material to dissolve. Melting range for PVA is 200-230°C depending form the polymerization level.The PVA filament must be stored with a drying agent, since it will absorb moisture out of the air very easily. Also, PVA decomposes rapidly above 200°C as it can undergo pyrolysis at high temperatures, which may block your nozzle leading to extrusion difficulties. PVA is fully degradable and is a quick dissolver. To speed up dissolving, gentle stirring can be applied. Warm water also speeds up the dissolving process.

          PTFE

          Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon). A slippery thermoplastic often used as a barrel in the extruder to minimize friction with the filament.

        Q

          R

            Raft

            A technique used to prevent warping. Parts are built on top of a 'raft' of disposable material instead of directly on the build surface. The raft is larger than the part and so has more adhesion. Rarely used with heated build surfaces. For the small area models, it is very useful to prevent warping via adding a raft for the model before slicing it. It can also help with with precision parts by removing the slight first few layer distortion caused by the heated bed.

            RAMPS

            RepRap Arduino Mega Pololu Shield - one of the more popular flavors of the "Official" electronics.

            RepRap

            A RepRap machine is a rapid prototyping machine that can manufacture a significant fraction of its own parts. The RepRap project is a quest to make a desktop-sized RepRap machine.

            RepStrap

            A 3D printing machine which can be used to make a RepRap, but is not a RepRap itself, as it wasn't made by something like itself. These are becoming less common as Mendel printed plastic parts become more available, but are still very popular. They're often sold in kit form or custom-made from scrounged parts.

            RP

            Rapid prototyping. Creating an object in a matter of hours on a "3D printer" as opposed to sending out a job to a modeling shop which may take days or weeks. Also known as additive manufacturing.

          S

            Setting

            The process by which the model hardens to its final form.

            SLA

            Stereo Lithography Apparatus. SLA is a registered trademark of 3D Systems Corporation. SL or stereolithography is commonly used in place of SLA.

            סטריאוליטוגראפי (Stereolithography): שיטת ההדפסה המסחרית והוותיקה ביותר. נמצאת בשימוש כבר 25 שנים. הבסיס לשיטה זו הוא נוזל מסוג פוטופולימר ההופך למוצק בחשיפה לאור. ב-SLA משתמשים בקרן לייזר או במקרן DLP כדי למצק את הנוזל שיכבה אחר שיכבה. מתקבל מודל מאוד מדויק ובעל פרטים ברורים. כאשר התוצאה יכולה להיות גם שקופה. עם זאת, התכונות המכניות של המודל אינן טובות. הוא קשה, שביר ומושפע לאורך זמן מתנאי הסביבה כגון לחות, חום ואור.

            SLS

            Selective Laser Sintering. SLS is a registered trademark of 3D Systems Corporation. LS or laser sintering is commonly used in place of SLS.

            סינטור בעזרת לייזר סלקטיבי (Selective Laser Sintering): נמצא בשימוש מ-1992. כמו בשיטת ה-SLA, גם בשיטה זו יש קרן לייזר שמציירת שכבה חדשה בכל פעם. בשונה מב-SLA, ב-SLS חומר הגלם הוא אבקת פלסטיק ולא נוזל. התהליך מתבצע בתא סגור ומחומם והתוצאה היא חלקים בעלי תכונות מכניות מצוינות כמו של חלקים המתקבלים בהזרקת פלסטיק לתבנית. החלקים המתקבלים עמידים וניתנים לעיבוד משלים. ניתן להשתמש בתערובות אבקה שונות כגון ניילון עם כדורי זכוכית או אלומיניום, קרבון וכולי. בשיטה זו ניתן לקבל חלקים מוכנים לשימוש מיידי והיא משמשת כשיטת ייצור מקובלת במקומות רבים. מכיוון שבשיטת ה-SLS ניתן לייצר מאות חלקים איכותיים בכל הרצה של המכונה וללא צורך בטיפול משלים לאחר מכן, היא אחראית לכמות הגדולה ביותר של חלקים המודפסים בעולם מדי שנה. השימוש במדפסות כאלו נפוץ מאוד בתחום רפואת השיניים ליצירת בסיס לכתרים ממתכת.

            Stepper motor

            Motors which operate only in discrete increments of rotation. This is the type of motor most commonly used in Mendel, the earlier Darwin, and Repstraps.

            STL

            Short for Stereo Lithographic, which is a recommended file format used to describe 3D objects. A design program (e.g. AoI) can produce an STL file which can then be fed to a 3D printer or 3D rendering graphics package.

            Possible alternatives to STL are discussed at a community specification for an improvement to STL files.

            Support Material

            Printed material that acts as support to allow overhangs, arches, etc. to be printed. Can either be a secondary material (PVA, HIPS) (requires dual extrusion) that can be removed, or the primary material that is broken away at the end of the print.

            Squashed frog

            Also known as the squashed frog, this is a part that the printing plate connects to. The frog connects directly to the linear bearings on the Y axis. The name comes from the original Sells Mendel part that looked like a "squashed frog".

            SLM

            התכה בעזרת לייזר סלקטיבי (Selective Laser Melting): בדומה ל-SLS, חומר הגלם הוא אבקת מתכת אשר קרן לייזר מתיכה אותה לשכבה דקה בכל פעם. התהליך מתבצע בתא קר סגור ומרוקן מחמצן על ידי הזרמה של גז אינרטי. התוצר הוא אחד מהמרשימים שניתן לקבל בהדפסה תלת-ממדית. מתקבלים חלקי מתכת, בדרך כלל טיטניום או אלומיניום חזקים ומוכנים לשימוש.

          T

            Thick Sheet

            A firm flat sheet of material 4-6 mm thick used as a printing surface. A variety of materials have been used, but the most important property is that it must be flat.

            3D Printing

            Three-dimensional printing or 3D printing (also called additive manufacturing) is any of various processes used to make a three-dimensional object. In 3D printing, additive processes are used, in which successive layers of material are laid down under computer control. These objects can be of almost any shape or geometry, and are produced from a 3D model or other electronic data source. A 3D printer is a type of industrial robot.

            3D printing in the term's original sense refers to processes that sequentially deposit material onto a powder bed with inkjet printer heads. More recently the meaning of the term has expanded to encompass a wider variety of techniques such as extrusion and sintering based processes. Technical standards generally use the term additive manufacturing for this broader sense.

            הדפסה תלת-ממדית היא טכנולוגיית ייצור המאפשרת לייצר דגמים תלת-ממדיים היישר מתוך המחשב. מכונות ההדפסה מייצרות את הדגמים (אבטיפוס) לרוב מפולימרים שונים, שכבה אחרי שכבה, ולבסוף מתקבל דגם סופי, כפי שתוכנן בתוכנות התב"ם (תכנון בעזרת מחשב - CAD). מדפסת תלת-הממד הראשונה נוצרה בשנת 1983 על ידי צ'אק האל מחברת "3D Systems", יצרנית מדפסות תלת-ממד. בשנת 1987 קמה חברת קיוביטל כחברת הזנק (סטארטאפ) תחת חברת סאיטקס בהרצליה פיתוח , שעסקה בבניה בשיטת השכבות, אחת על השנייה המדפסת התלת ממידית הראשונה בישראל לפי פטנט שכתבו חמישה ממציאים יצחק פומרנץ ,יוש דולברג, יוסי קמיר, יוסי כהן סבאן,ובארי בן עזרא בשנת 1988 יוסי קמיר בנה והפעיל את המדפסת בשיטה סטריאוליטוגראפי (Stereolithography)הראשונה בישראל. כיום קיים מגוון גדול של מדפסות תלת-ממד - ממדפסות תעשייתיות לייצור במתכות, מדפסות המדפיסות אובייקטים צבעוניים ומדפסות ביתיות במחירים נמוכים יחסית. מדפסות תלת-ממד נמצאות בשימוש בתעשייה לצורך ייצור דגמים, חלקי מתכת מורכבים, תכשיטים, אופנה ועוד. בנוסף ישנם ניסיונות לייצור מדפסות לייצור אוכל, מבנים, איבריים ביולוגיים ועוד. בשנת 2005 פיתח אדריאן בווייר את פרויקט ה-Reprap, שמטרתו יצירת מדפסות תלת-ממד בקוד פתוח בטכנולוגיית FDM. כיום ניתן למצוא 'קיטים' ומדפסות מוכנות לשימוש ביתי המבוססות על פרויקט ה-Reprap.

            3D Scanner

            A 3D scanner is a device that analyses a real-world object or environment to collect data on its shape and possibly its appearance (e.g. colour). The collected data can then be used to construct digital three-dimensional models.

            Many different technologies can be used to build these 3D-scanning devices; each technology comes with its own limitations, advantages and costs. Many limitations in the kind of objects that can be digitised are still present, for example, optical technologies encounter many difficulties with shiny, mirroring or transparent objects. For example, industrial computed tomography scanning can be used to construct digital 3D models, applying non-destructive testing. Collected 3D data is useful for a wide variety of applications. These devices are used extensively by the entertainment industry in the production of movies and video games. Other common applications of this technology include industrial design, orthotics and prosthetics, reverse engineering and prototyping, quality control/inspection and documentation of cultural artifacts.

            סורק תלת ממדי הוא מכשיר האוסף מידע מפני השטח על אובייקטים, כגון הצורה, המידות והצבע של האובייקט הסרוק, ומאפשר לאחר מכן ליצור מודלים דיגיטליים תלת ממדים של אותו האובייקט לשימושים שונים.

            ישנן טכנולוגיות רבות המשולבות בסורקי תלת הממד השונים. כל טכנולוגיה כרוכה במגבלות, יתרונות ועלויות משלה. ישנם לרוב מגבלות עם סוגים שונים של אובייקטים שלא ניתן לבצע דיגיטציה שלהם; למשל, טכנולוגיות אופטיות לא מאפשרות לרוב לסרוק אובייקטים מבריקים, אובייקטים בהם ישנה השתקפות או אובייקטים שקופים. איסוף נתונים תלת ממדיים שימושי למגוון רחב של יישומים. המכשירים הללו נמצאים בשימוש נרחב על ידי תעשיית הבידור לצורך הפקה של סרטים ומשחקי וידאו. יישומים נפוצים אחרים של טכנולוגיה זו כוללים עיצוב תעשייתי, יצירת עזרים חיצוניים אורתופדיים לחלקי הגוף השונים, יצירת איברים תותבים, הינדוס לאחור, יצירת דגמי אבטיפוס, בקרת איכות, ולצורך תיעוד של יצירות תרבות. בטכנולוגיה זו נעשה שימוש כדי ליצור מודלים תלת-ממדיים של קתדרלות גותיות על מנת לאפשר, לצד לימוד האדריכלות שלהן וביצוע מדידות מדויקות (כגון גבהים), לבדוק את איכות האדריכלות ולוודא שאין נזקים מבניים ומעמסים לקתדרלות העומדות על תילן כבר מאות שנים.

          U

            V

              Viscosity

              Viscosity is a property of fluids determining it's resistance to flow. The higher the viscosity, the more difficult a material will be to extrude or dispense (more energy/pressure will be needed). Also, the higher the viscosity, the less the deposited thread of material will sag or change shape until hardening.

              Vitamin

              A non-replicated part.

              In RepRap jargon, a "vitamin" is anything that you need to build a RepRap which cannot yet be printed on a RepRap. For example, bolts.

            W

              Wade's Extruder

              One of many designs for the "cold end" of an extruder. It is based on Adrian's Geared Extruder, and includes many concepts from Nophead's Extruder Tweaks.

            X

              Y

                Z

                  FaLang translation system by Faboba